Company Name – Google
Founder – Sergey Brin and Larry Page
Known for the most used search engine across the globe, Google or Google LLC is actually one of the companies included in Big Four technology where Apple, Facebook and Amazon are included.
This American technology company is accepted multi-nationally and offers multi-faceted internet services as well as products namely the search engine, software, hardware, cloud computing, online advertising and so on. The headquarters of Google, also known as Googleplex is in Mountain View of California and the current CEO is Sundar Pichai while Ruth Porat works as CFO.
How It All Started
While Segey Brin and Larry Page were doing their research as PhD scholars from Stanford University, California, they came up with the idea of creating a new search engine that could analyze relationships within various websites and show results accordingly. This was totally a unique idea regarding how the conventional search engines used to rank search results according to the number of times the keywords or search terms were present on a particular website.
The new technology, as a part of research project, was developed in January, 1996 with the name of Page Rank, which determined relevance of any website by not only the numbers of pages but also importance of such pages linking back to original site.
Initially, the search engine was named as BackRub as its system estimated importance of a website by checking backlinks. The name ‘Google’ was derived from the misspelling of ‘googol’ i.e. number 1 followed by hundred 0s –it denoted that the search engine would provide that much quantity of information to its users.
The domains z.stanford.edu and google.stanford.edu were the first domains to run from the website of Stanford University. On 15th September in 1997, Google’s domain name was registered followed by its incorporation on 4th September in 1998. The first employee of Google, the company based in a friend named Susan Wojcicki’s garage from Menlo Park was another PhD student.
Before the incorporation of Google, it was funded by Andy Bechtolsheim of Sun Microsystems with $100,000 in August, 1998, Jeff Bezos from Amazon, David Cheriton – a professor of computer science from Stanford University and Ram Shriram, an entrepreneur. From 1998 to 1999, there were a few small investments and on 7th June, the $25 million was announced by Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins.
On 19th August in 2004, the IPO or Initial Public Offering was held where Eric Schmidt along with Brin and Page decided to work for Google till 2024. 19,605,052 shares were offered by Google in the IPO with per share pricing of $85 through online auction system. With $1.67 billion sale of share, Google acquired over $23 billion market share which grew up to $397 billion by January in 2014. Google, itself had shares worth $271 million, making numerous employees as well as Yahoo, its competitor search engine, benefitted by millions.
As conglomerate of Alphabet Inc, Google announced reorganization plans for its different interests in August, 2015 and will continue as umbrella company for Alphabet while being its leading subsidiary.
Google’s Marketing Strategy And Interesting Reasons Behind Its Success
-Convenience –Apart from Google Search, the core search engine of the company, there are numerous services to offer convenience such as Gmail for emailing, Google Sheets, Google Docs, Google Slides, Google Calendar for time management, Google Drive as cloud storage service, Google+ as social networking site and for video chat and instant messaging there are Google Duo, Google Allo and Hangouts.
Google Translate is for help in language translation. Google Maps, Google Earth, Waze and Street View are for help in navigation and mapping. Google Photos is for photo editing and organizing while YouTube is for video sharing and Google Pay is for exchanging money online.
-Mobile Technology –With developing Android operating system for mobiles, the web browser of Google Chrome was developed for both mobile devices (Chrome OS) and desktop computers.
From 2010 till 2015, it had partnership with various electronics manufacturers and Nexus devices were produced with introduction of different hardware products namely the Pixel Smartphone, smart speaker named Google Home, wireless router named Google WiFi and VR headset named Google Daydream.
-Advertisement –Initially in 2000, Google incorporated advertisements (text-based) to earn revenue and give an uncluttered look to the search engine.
After being patented for PageRank mechanism in 2001 and being included as a verb in Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam Webster, it was mentioned in 2002 television series of Vampire Slayer. By 2012, Google had acquired $50 billion from advertisements.
-Partnerships –By acquiring Deja News in 2001 and rebranding it as Google Groups, Google started expanding history to 1981. Google’s advertising was enhanced with AdSence from Applied Semantics, acquired in 2003. Google Earth was born after acquiring Keyhole Inc in 2014 and Google Analytics was created from Urchin Software, acquired in 2005.
YouTube was acquired in 2006 followed by acquiring DoubleClick in 2007. It has partnership with NASA Ames Research Center for expanding offices and AOL for enhancing video search. In 2008, it partnered with GeoEye for getting high resolution satellite imagery on Google Earth.
AdMob, AdExchange and AdSense are the three methods adopted by Google to earn revenues from cost-per-clicks, app sale, in-app purchase, service and licensing fee and featuring digital contents on android apps, YouTube and Google. Google Analytics tracks usage of website by people for owners while AdWords lets advertisers display ads on their sites and earn revenue from cost-per-click.
The search engine of Google was enhanced in 2010 by updating image thumbnails that enlarge while being pointed at and dictionary definitions were updated to make certain words appear above the results of web searches. For Google Search, the Personal tab lets users search contents in various services of their Gmail account.
Apart from the common products and services like Google Docs, Google Maps, Google Chrome etc, Project Fi under Google Fiber was introduced to combine cellular and WiFi networks and offer faster internet signals with seamless connectivity. Google Notes for sharing notes, Google News for featuring summarized articles, Google Alerts for detecting content change and sending notification and Google Shopping Express as delivery Service are also popular campaigns between 2002 till 2013.
With a mission statement of organizing information across the globe and making them universally accessible and helpful, Google has been catering not only its employees from over forty offices but also non-employees by offering its service and special tours to certain sectors of its headquarters.
To engage its audience, Google has been featuring temporary homepage logos since 1998 to celebrate special events, holidays, people, achievements and even wishes the users of Gmail on their birthdays.
Even as a philanthropic organization to create awareness of environmental issues and social issues like homosexuality acceptance, Google has been a leading company worldwide.